Middle High German (MHG.) embraces the High German language from about the year 1100 to 1500. It is divided into three great dialect-groups: Upper German, Franconian, and East Middle German.

1. Upper German is divided into: (a) Alemanic, embracing High Alemanic (Switzerland), and Low Alemanic (South Baden, Swabia, and Alsace). (b) Bavarian, extending over Bavaria and those parts of Austria where German is spoken.

2. Franconian (West Middle German), which is subdivided into Upper Franconian and Middle Franconian. Upper Franconian consists of East Franconian (the old duchy of Francia Orientalis) and Rhenish Franconian (the old province of Francia Rhinensis), Middle Franconian extending over the district along the banks of the Moselle and of the Rhine from Coblence to Düsseldorf.

3. East Middle German, extending over: Thuringia, Upper Saxony, and Silesia.

Since it is impossible to deal with all these dialects in an elementary book like the present, we shall confine ourselves almost exclusively to Upper German, and shall only deal with that period of Middle High German which extends from about 1200 to 1300.

Read more

Nikon D800 vs. Nikon D4 - Which one to buy?

  5 Lenses You Must Have for Nikon D7000 (or D300S)  

5 Lenses You Must Have for Nikon D7000 (or D300S)
by Raphael Chieza

Last week, I wrote an article about 5 lenses which you must have for the Canon 7D and from the some of the comments we've received, there seems to be a great interest for me to cover the 5 lenses you must have for a Nikon D7000 as well. So with the kit lens quickly put on the second hand market, here we go with our lens selection. Keep in mind that as the D300S is also a DX format body like the D7000, the lenses selected will be valid for the D300S as well.


Nikon Nikkor AF-S 50mm f/1.4G Prime Selection - Nikon Nikkor AF-S 50mm f/1.4G

It will come as no surprise to anyone to see the Nikon Nikkor AF-S 50mm f/1.4G in the selection. This beautiful walk around lens on a full frame body turns into a lovely portrait lens with the 1.5x crop factor on the DX format body. There is of course the cheaper Nikon Nikkor AF 50mm f/1.4D also available for consideration but I am sure you will find that the G lens is worth the extra money. There will be some of you who feel that the upcoming Nikon Nikkor AF-S 35mm F1.4G should also be included but given that I am only selecting 5 lenses, I will be depending on my choice of the standard zoom to cover the 50mm equivalent focal length.


Nikon Nikkor AF-S 16-35mm f/4G ED VRThe Standard Zoom - Nikon Nikkor AF-S 16-35mm f/4G ED VR

If you have read my earlier article on the Canon selection for the 7D, you will no doubt expect me to choose the Nikon Nikkor 17-55mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX Zoom for its ideal coverage of the standard range of focal lengths. However, as much as it's a lovely lens, I find its price a bit too steep for a DX lens even for its amazing performance and had to choose the Nikon Nikkor AF-S 16-35mm f/4G ED VR. The addition of VR in the 16-35mm also helped make the choice. Since most of my shooting in this range is done hands free, I find that vibration reduction to be something which is highly preferable even though most shooting in this range does not need it so much. The limited focal range means that anything over 35mm (52.5mm in 35mm equivalent) and less than 70mm (105 in 35mm equivalent and the focal length of the next selection) will have to be taken on by the 50mm prime though. Of course, if you can afford to splash out, either the 17-55mm DX lens mentioned above or better still getting both the Nikon Nikkor 17-35mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S Zoom and the Nikon Nikkor AF-S 24-70mm f/2.8G ED could be options.


Nikon Nikkor AF-S 70-200mm f/2.8G ED VR IIThe Telephoto Zoom - Nikon Nikkor AF-S 70-200mm f/2.8G ED VR II

This choice is really a no brainer. The Nikon Nikkor AF-S 70-200mm f/2.8G ED VR II and its predecessors and smaller aperture brethrens are the most popular zoom for both DX and FX bodies alike. With a large aperture of f/2.8, you can use teleconverters without suffering much from the 2-stop penalty, especially if you choose a good one like the Nikon TC-20E III Teleconverter. Of course, you are also benefitting from the new VR II technology from Nikon which offers better performance.



Nikon Nikkor 12-24mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX ZoomThe Wide-angle Zoom - Nikon Nikkor 12-24mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX Zoom

With DX format bodies, there is really no choice than a DX lens if you want to achieve proper wide-angle focal lengths. In the Nikon range of lenses, the best option has got to be the Nikon Nikkor 12-24mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX Zoom. The lens delivers a satisfactory wide-angle range of 18-36mm in the 35mm equivalent and while the focal length is not the widest option, it is certainly the best for the job. The alternative would be the Nikon Nikkor AF-S DX 10-24mm f/3.5-4.5G ED but the image quality would be inferior.


The Super Telephoto Zoom - Don't bother...

To be honest, if money was no object, I would definitely pick the Nikon Nikkor AF-S 200-400mm F4G ED VR II as the lens of choice but given the high cost of the lens, it has got to be considered a luxury option unless you have a highly specialized use and don't mind the weight of this beauty. However, lesser mortals like myself will most likely content with the Nikon Nikkor 80-400mm f/4.5-5.6D ED VR AF Zoom. However, if you consider the significant overlap with the 70-200 and teleconverter combination, you may be tempted to ask yourself why bother with it? Of course, this is given that you have the 70-200mm lens I mentioned above?


Nikon Nikkor 105mm f/2.8G AF-S VR MicroThe Macro Prime - Nikon Nikkor 105mm f/2.8G AF-S VR Micro

The best macro lens from the Nikon range has got to be the Nikon Nikkor 105mm f/2.8G AF-S VR Micro. Don't get me wrong the Nikon Nikkor AF-S DX Micro 85mm f/3.5G ED VR is a very good option for the DX body but the 105mm just offers more in terms of both short term performance and long term possibilities (as in if you wish to shoot with a FX body as well in the future). If you are into shooting the creepy crawlies around your garden than the 105mm stands out even more?try it and you will love it.


Why just Nikon lenses??

Some of you may question whether third-party manufacturers may offer additional options and I will provide some answers in a follow up article to give both Canon and Nikon users of cropped sensor bodies some extra options such as Sigma, Tokina and Tamron. For those who don't mind trading the autofocus feature for better image quality, there are some really nice lenses out there from manufacturers like Carl Zeiss, Leica and Voigtlander. Stay tuned for the follow up article and do comment on this article's selection as well as what you would like included (whatever the brand).


Related Articles:

Battle of the Fast 50mm's: Nikon f1.8 vs f1.4 vs Sigma f1.4 Battle of the Fast 50mm's: Nikon f1.8 vs f1.4 vs Sigma f1.4
Best Third-Party Lens Selection for Canon EOS 7D and Nikon D7000 (or D300S)
Best Third-Party Lens Selection for Canon EOS 7D and Nikon D7000 (or D300S)



  Raphael is an ardent photographer, a member of the Marketing Communication team at DigitalRev, and a colourful personality whose favourite hobby is to tell bad jokes to people. Being driven by passion to shoot something new all the time, his photos are an exciting story even when they don't turn out quite as he expects.


How The USDA Grades Your Steak

Making The Grade: The USDA And Your Steak

For steak lovers, suppliers, and farmers alike, the USDA’s grading system is the holy standard for all things beef, from ribeye to New York strip. 

But for those unfamiliar with how the USDA grades beef, the different grades and what they mean can be somewhat mystifying. It doesn’t help that certain restaurants, supermarkets, and suppliers are doing their best to confuse you so they can serve you inferior steaks.

To make sure you’re getting the best steak possible, it’s important that you understand how the USDA’s system works. With this guide, you’ll learn about the different grades of beef, including Prime, Choice, and Select. You’ll also learn what the USDA looks for when judging cattle, and why marblingand age are so important to quality cuts.

What To Look For And Why

When purchasing steaks, always look for the USDA shield.

Crafty restaurants, supermarkets, and wholesalers might say that they use their own, in-house ratings, or will call their steaks “prime” cuts, without using USDA certification. The best way to avoid getting cheated on your steak is to look for the USDA seal.

For restaurants: Ask for the USDA rating. If your server skirts the topic, that’s a warning sign.

For supermarkets and wholesalers: Look for the USDA seal. If you cannot find it (it might be on the bottom of the package), the meat is not USDA certified.

The Upper Cuts: Prime, Choice, and Select

The USDA has eight grades for beef, but you will probably find only three labelled grades at your local supermarket or butcher shop. These are Prime, Choice, and Select.

USDA PRIME is reserved for the best cuts of beef. Just 3% of steaks get labelled Prime. Steaks of this grade are quickly bought by five-star restaurants and upscale wholesalers. Because of this, Prime steaks are rarely found in supermarkets or grocery stores. Prime cuts are sourced from younger steers, and are abundant in marbling and reddish-pink in color. They are the most tender, juicy, and flavorful steaks on the market.

USDA CHOICE is the step below Prime. USDA Choice cuts are available in most grocery stores and medium-priced restaurants. A Choice steak often has the same reddish-pink color of a Prime cut, but lacks the same level of marbling. The amount of marbling found in Choice cuts can vary widely. It is wise to inspect a Choice steak to see how much marbling it contains. Depending on the cut, a Choice steak may require slower cooking or a marinade to bring out its tenderness and flavor.

USDA SELECT steaks sit at the lower end of the quality cuts. Because of the low level of marbling found in Select cuts, they usually require marinating. Salt-rich or acidic sauces/marinades can also help tenderize Select steaks, as salt and acids soften and help to break down tougher tissues. Select steaks also benefit from longer cooking times at lower temperatures.

Grading Criteria: What Makes A Great Steak

USDA grades are based on what makes a steak as tender, juicy, and flavorful as possible. There are two main criteria that help graders determine which cattle produce the best beef.

Marbling, also known as “intra-muscular fat,” is the most prized feature in steaks. Marbling is characterized by thin streaks of fat between muscle tissue. When cooked, the fat melts. This gives the meat unparalleled tenderness and a rich, buttery flavor.

Age is another important factor in steak quality. Younger steaks are more tender and flavorful than older cuts of meat. Because of this, most Prime and Choice steaks come from steers 1 to 3 years in age. Steak age is usually determined by the color of the meat, as steaks turn a deeper, darker color as they age.

The “Other” Grades

There are five other grades of beef used by the USDA.

The two medium grades – Standard and Commercial – result in lower quality cuts. For steaks, these cuts are usually left unlabelled, or get turned into ground beef. Many stores will sell unlabelled Standard or Commercial grade steaks under in-house labels, which is why it’s so important to keep an eye out for the USDA seal.

Cattle that receive one of the lowest three grades – Utility, Cutter, and Canner – are used for cheaper ground beef, hot dogs, or pet food. Luckily, steaks of this grade are rarely (if ever) sold by grocery stores, butchers, or wholesalers.

Any of the five lower grades should be avoided when purchasing steaks.

Prime Time: Grill Meets Grade

Now that you know how to find the best steaks, it’s time to put knowledge to practice. With a firm grasp of the USDA grading system, you’ll be able to find a wholesaler, butcher, or grocery store you can trust to deliver high-quality cuts. And remember: grade-A steaks deserve grade-A grillers and recipes.


Cooking TechniquesDone To Perfection: Your Guide To Steak Doneness


Summer’s finally here, and if you stand in your backyard and listen closely, you’ll hear the beautiful sound of millions of grills being lit across the country.

There is – of course – no better food to grill than a richly marbled, perfectly aged cut of USDA Prime steak. But before you finish tying up the strings on your “Kiss The Chef” apron, it’s best to be sure you have the basics of steak doneness down.

With this guide to Steak doneness, we’ll show you what happens when you cook your steak, what the different levels of doneness are (and what they for your steak’s tenderness and flavor), and how you can be sure that you’ve cooked your steak to the perfect level of doneness.

What Cooking Does To Your Steak
There are two parts to grilling a gorgeous ribeye or strip. The first is making sure that the steak reaches a consistent internal temperature. It’s this internal temperature that’s used to determine a steak’s doneness.

When you cook meat, you’re doing three things:

  1. You’re breaking down it’s proteins: Muscle proteins, which are usually tightly balled, begin to unwind. This is why rawer steaks are chewier than more cooked ones.
  2. You’re evaporating water: Roughly ¾ of a steak’s muscle fibers are made of water. As you cook a steak, that water evaporates. Hence why a well done steak has less mass and less juiciness than a rare steak.
  3. You’re melting fat: As you cook your steak, the small streaks and pockets of fat inside start melting. When the fat melts, it gets absorbed into the muscle. This gives your steak a better taste (fat contains the chemicals that gives beef its flavor) and a smoother, more tender and buttery texture.

The second part of grilling is searing. Searing a steak involves exposing its surface to extremely hot temperatures (meaning 500°or hotter) for short periods. This results in what’s called the Maillard effect, and it gives your steak the crunchy, brown flavorful exterior that steak lovers prize.

Steak Doneness Levels
All great steaks require searing (for flavor, texture, and killing surface bacteria). But it’s the internal temperature that determines your steak’s doneness. There are six main levels of doneness you can cook a steak to.
NOTE: You should always pull your steak off the grill when it’s 5° below the temperature you want it to reach. This is because your steak retains heat and will continue to cook and heat up for a short time after you pull it off the grill.

Blue Rare (115°): Also known as Very Rare, Blood Rare, Black & Blue, Pittsburgh Rare, or Bloody As Hell. Blue Rare steaks are only seared on the outside, meaning the inside remains almost completely uncooked and raw. Blue Rare steaks are often still cool on the inside, and may be placed in an oven at a low temperature to warm.

Rare (120°): Rare steaks have a warm but very red center. This means the surface has the tasty flavor and texture of the Maillard effect, but also means that the steak’s fats have not had a chance to properly melt. Because of this, Rare is a great choice for low-fat steaks, such as tenderloins, but should be avoided for well-marbled cuts such as rib-eyes, strips, and porterhouses.

Medium Rare (130°): The gold-standard of steak doneness. Ask almost any chef or steak aficionado: Medium Rare means the best tasting, most tender steak you can grill. At this temperature, the steak’s fat has had a chance to melt, distributing butteriness and flavor, but not a lot of moisture has evaporated yet, meaning a supremely tender, juicy, and plump steak. A medium-rare steak is red at the center, with a ring of pinkness between the center and the crust.

Medium (140°): A medium steak no longer contains a red center, but is pink throughout most of the steak. Medium steaks retain the buttery, flavorful taste of Medium-Rare steaks, but have slightly less juiciness and tenderness, due to moisture loss.

Medium Well (150°): Medium Well steaks still retain a little bit of pinkness and tenderness, but have begun to lose enough moisture that they will be drier and less tender than most steak lovers would care for.

Well Done (160°): Most chefs and grillmasters would say this level of doneness is poorly named – “Over-Done” would be a better fit. By this point, enough moisture (and fat) has either evaporated or leaked from the steak that it you’ll find your meat much drier and tougher than you’d probably like it.

Determining Temperature
The best way to make sure your steak has reached the temperature and level of doneness you’re looking for is to use a meat thermometer. Find a quality thermometer that gives accurate readings and slide it into the side of your steak, towards the center.

Some people will tell you not to do this, as poking a steak will let the juices leak out. Ignore them – it’s nonsense. A small amount of juices will leak, but not enough that anyone will notice.

Similarly, ignore those who tell you to check a steak’s doneness through the finger test Different breeds of beef, cuts of meat, and steak thicknesses can cause big variations in how a cooked steak feels to the touch – the method is unreliable, and is a great way to ruin a good Wagyu or Kobe-style steak.

Get Grilling
Now that you know the perfect doneness and temperature to grill your rib-eye to (hint hint: Medium Rare, Medium Rare, Medium Rare), it’s time to fire up the grill. 

If you’re looking for more tips on how to get the perfect steak, why not check out a few of Steak U’s videos, and let some of Chicago’s top steakhouse chefs and steak lovers show you how it’s done?


With the price of beef these days you don't want to "Ruin" your meat on the grill.I like my beef rare to medium rare, so I think, in my humble opinion the reverse sear method is the way to rock. Click Here to Watch.